Total cells collected from different experiments were obtained by lysing in RIPA buffer. The protein concentration was determined using the BCA Protein assay kit (Pierce Biotechnology, Rockford, IL, USA). Cell lysates were subjected to SDS-PAGE electrophoresis and proteins were blotted onto PVDF membranes. The membranes were further incubated with primary antibodies PDK1 (1:1500, ab110025, Abcam Inc, Cambridge, MA, USA) and GAPDH (1:2000, AF0006, Beyotime Biotechnology, Shanghai, China) followed by incubation with an HRP‑conjugated secondary antibody (1:3000, A0216, Beyotime Biotechnology, Shanghai, China). Exposure was performed using enhanced chemiluminescence reagents (Millipore, Billerica, MA, USA).

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