Roswell Park Memorial Institute (RPMI) medium containing phenol red, fetal bovine serum (FBS), and penicillin-streptomycin antibiotics (200 units/ml) were obtained from Gibco BRL (Grand Island, NY, USA). The 96-, 24-, and 6-well plates and T25 and T75 cell culture flasks were obtained from NUNC (Roskilde, Denmark). Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) was procured from Merck-Millipore (NJ, USA). The emodin (E7881), and 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, and 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) were procured from Sigma Aldrich (USA). The JC-1 iodide (sc-364116), 3,3′-dihexyloxacarbocyanine iodide (DIOC6) (sc-205905), and propidium iodide (sc-3541) were procured from Santa Cruz Biotech (Santa Cruz, CA, USA). The CellROX™ Green (C10444), CellROX™ Deep Red (C10422), and Hoechst 33342 (H1399) were procured from Thermo Fisher Scientific (USA). The organic solvents were of HPLC-grade (Merck, NJ, USA). All other chemicals were from Sigma Aldrich (USA) or as otherwise specified. The list of antibodies used is provided in the supplementary data.

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