This study included three independent cohorts of glioma patients, who did not receive preoperative radiotherapy, chemotherapy or immunotherapy. In cohort of Chongqing, glioma tissue samples were collected during the years 2013 to 2015. In cohort of Hefei, samples were collected during the years 2007 to 2011. In the Shanghai cohort, glioma tissue microarrays were purchased from BioChip (Shanghai, China), which were collected during the years from 2008 to 2011. All patients were followed up for 5 years and clinic pathologic parameters were obtained from medical records maintained in the Departments of Pathology of respective hospitals (Supplementary Table 1). The study concerning human specimens were performed in accordance with the principles of the Helsinki Declaration and approved by the Ethics Committee of Third Military Medical University (Army Medical University), Chongqing, China and the Affiliated Provincial Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, China. Glioma diagnosis was based on the World Health Organization (WHO) Classification of central nervous system tumor (2016).

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