The brief flowchart for screening novel biomarkers for ESCC is showed in Fig. Fig.11.

Flowchart for screening novel biomarkers in ESCC.

ESCC-related GEO datasets with primary tumor tissues and matched normal tissues, principal component analysis (PCA) analysis can well distinguish tumor samples from normal samples, expression profiling by array were enrolled into the present study. Thus, the datasets for ESCC (GSE17351, GSE20347, GSE23400, GSE100942, GSE38129 and GSE77861) were downloaded from the GEO (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/) database by R ×64 3.6.0 with the “GEOquery” R package 11. The details of these datasets are listed in Table Table11. TCGA-ESCC samples with RNA-seq data and matched clinical metadata (including 11 normal and 78 tumor samples) were downloaded from the GDC database (https://portal.gdc.cancer.gov/). The detailed clinical characteristics of the enrolled patients in TCGA are shown in Table Table22.

Details of ESCC datasets from the GEO and TCGA database

Clinical characteristics of the enrolled patients in TCGA

Abbreviation: NA, not available.

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