Study participants were recruited through community outreach and social network referrals in the greater Kisumu area. Kenya’s third-largest city, Kisumu, has been proactive in increasing community COVID-19 awareness and protection measures. It operates a successful fully digitized COVID-19 Response Call Centre at Maseno University; has trained healthcare providers and community health workers on the management of COVID-19 patients on home-based care; sensitized security personnel and the police [8]; and advocated for handwashing [9]. There are two public-sector COVID-19 testing facilities in Kisumu; however, a shortage of reagents has caused delays in conducting the tests. As a result, samples had to be transported to Nairobi and testing restricted to those who present themselves at hospitals and their close contacts [10, 11]. This has constrained the number of tests performed daily [12]. The number of COVID-19 tests performed in Kisumu has increased from 350 between April-August 2020 to 1138 between Sept 20th to Nov 12th, 2020. The percent of positive tests increased from 2% between April-August 2020 to 11.5% in the period from Sept 20th to Nov 12th, 2020 [13].

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