Optical sources and detectors were sparsely placed over the right motor and somatosensory cortex of the brain. The configuration of the optodes is shown in Fig. 1, totaling 24 channels. Within each channel, the separation between the optical source and the optical detector ranged from 1.7 to 2.7 cm. Wavelengths of the system (namely, 750 and 850 nm) and the corresponding optical properties of different tissues were chosen according to literature.5 Finally, the forward matrix of DOT was calculated using the NIRFAST toolbox,4 during which procedure only two chromophores, oxygenated hemoglobin (HbO) and deoxygenated hemoglobin (Hb) were considered. The forward model calculates optical density changes (ΔOD) using the changes of HbO and Hb concentrations (ΔHbO and ΔHb, respectively).

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