SWL was performed using a Dornier Delta II lithotripter (Dornier MedTech, Munich, Germany). Most patients underwent SWL on an outpatient basis, although older patients or those with one or more severe comorbidities were admitted for SWL. Pain control was achieved using diclofenac sodium (50 mg, suppository) and/or pentazocine hydrochloride (15 mg, intramuscular injection). All SWLs were performed with stepwise power and a shock wave rate of 90–100 per minute by a single experienced surgeon (Y. A.). Stone fragmentation was determined by X-ray examination. Medical expulsive therapy following SWL was not routinely performed.

Note: The content above has been extracted from a research article, so it may not display correctly.



Q&A
Please log in to submit your questions online.
Your question will be posted on the Bio-101 website. We will send your questions to the authors of this protocol and Bio-protocol community members who are experienced with this method. you will be informed using the email address associated with your Bio-protocol account.



We use cookies on this site to enhance your user experience. By using our website, you are agreeing to allow the storage of cookies on your computer.