SWL was performed using a Dornier Delta II lithotripter (Dornier MedTech, Munich, Germany). Most patients underwent SWL on an outpatient basis, although older patients or those with one or more severe comorbidities were admitted for SWL. Pain control was achieved using diclofenac sodium (50 mg, suppository) and/or pentazocine hydrochloride (15 mg, intramuscular injection). All SWLs were performed with stepwise power and a shock wave rate of 90–100 per minute by a single experienced surgeon (Y. A.). Stone fragmentation was determined by X-ray examination. Medical expulsive therapy following SWL was not routinely performed.

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