The original LFET (prototype 1, P1) was designed by Diabaté and collaborators in 2013 [19] and was made from a metal frame (length = 69 cm, width = 51 cm, height = 165 cm) fitted with a regular mosquito net to prevent mosquitoes and other insects from escaping the trap once they enter it (Fig. 2). A funnel made from a metal frame was inserted at the top of the trap in such a way that mosquitoes approaching the window go first through the larger opening of the funnel and enter the trap through the small and rectangular opening. The first (large) opening of the funnel is 70 cm long and 54 cm diagonally, while the second (small) opening in bottom 13.3 cm long and large of 11.2 cm. The small opening of the funnel is 10 cm away from the backside of the trap. The funnel is inserted in the frame in a way that allows the mosquitoes to enter the trap easily but prevents them from escaping. Once the mosquitoes enter the trap, they have a large space beneath the funnel where they disperse. For a mosquito to escape, it would have to fly up towards the small opening of the funnel and navigate through the 10 cm space separating the small opening of the funnel and the back of the frame. Ultimately, mosquitoes continue to fly to exhaustion before finding a way out. The principle of the LFET is to confine the mosquito inside the trap until dehydration and death. For the purpose of this experiment, traps were fitted with three sleeves on the side (one below, one in the middle and one on the top) through which mosquitoes were aspirated. The trap was secured to the windows using nails.

Dimensions of the trap, front and side view. a Inserts front view: 69 cm wide × 165 cm high; 13.3 cm long × 11.2 cm wide (small opening of the funnel). b Inserts side view: 51 cm depth of the trap, 70 cm long × 54 cm diagonal (large opening of the funnel); 10 cm distance of the small opening of the funnel from the backside of the trap (Diabaté et al. [19]); c original prototype outside view inside a house

The medium (prototype 2, P2) is a smaller version of the original LFET. The funnel dimensions are similar but its height (82.5 cm) is half that of the original LFET (165 cm) (Fig. 3). Similarly, the whole trap was also covered with a net, fitted with three sleeves for mosquito collection.

a Dimensions of the trap, front and side view. Inserts front view: 69 cm wide × 82.5 cm high; 13.3 cm long × 11.2 cm wide (small opening of the funnel). Inserts side view: 51 cm depth of the trap, 70 cm long × 54 cm diagonal (large opening of the funnel); 10 cm distance of the small opening of the funnel from the backside of the trap. b Prototype 2 outside view inside a house

The Prototype 3 (P3) was made using a metal funnel frame with the following measurements: length = 81 cm, width = 16 cm, height = 80 cm (Fig. 4). Here, the small funnel opening used as entry is a circular metal funnel, instead of rectangular as in the previous traps, with an opening size of 16.5 cm in diameter. Two circular openings on the right and on the left (the distance between both circular openings is 12.5 cm) were made to fit the window size. Depending on the space available around the window of the house, the trap position may allow the use of only one of the openings (either right or left). When one opening is used as entry, the second would be closed and covered with netting. The volume of the trap was made of a horizontal and rectangular metal frame (length = 110 cm, width = 16 cm, height = 56 cm). A net covered the trap on the backside of the funnel and was fitted with five sleeves allowing mosquito collection.

a Dimensions of the trap, inserts front view. 16 cm wide × 80 cm high; 16.5 cm diameter (circular opening of the funnel), 56 cm depth of the trap, 81 cm long × 40 cm diagonal (large opening of the funnel); 10 cm distance of the small opening of the funnel from the backside of the trap. b Prototype 3 outside view inside a house, with circular funnel as entrance

The prototype 4 (P4) is similar to P3 in terms of size and funnel type but has an additional circular funnel frame. This small (9 cm long) circular funnel gives access to the space beneath.

The distance between the end of the circular pipe and the back of the trap is 10 cm. In addition, P4 was equipped with a mirror for the inhabitants’ personal use, which would make it valuable for other functions beyond controlling mosquito populations. This may help increase the acceptability and sustained use of the trap (Fig. 5). As with P3, this trap was also outfitted with five sleeves enabling mosquito collection.

a Dimensions of the trap, inserts front view. 16 cm wide × 80 cm high; 16.5 cm diameter (circular opening of the funnel), 56 cm depth of the trap, 81 cm long × 40 cm diagonal (large opening of the funnel); small circular funnel diameter 10.5 cm, distance from the beginning of the large circular to the end of small circular 9 cm and 10 cm distance of the small opening of the funnel from the backside of the trap. b Prototype 4 outside view inside a house, with small circular funnel entrance

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