We will upload the results of the electronic searches to EndNote (v.X7, Clarivate Analytics, Philadelphia, PA) and remove duplicates. We will transfer the titles and abstracts to DistillerSR (Evidence Partners, Ottawa, Canada) for screening. Two reviewers will independently screen the studies for eligibility in two stages (titles and abstracts, then full texts) following the pre-defined selection criteria (Tables 2, ,3,3, ,4,4, and and5)5) and mark each as include/unsure or exclude. At the title and abstract screening stage, we will use the liberal-accelerated approach [108, 109], whereby any record marked as include/unsure by either of two reviewers will be considered eligible for full-text screening. Records excluded by either reviewer will be screened by a second reviewer to confirm or refute their exclusion. At the full-text screening stage, the reviewers will agree upon the included studies, with arbitration by a third reviewer if necessary. We will record the reasons for excluding full texts and illustrate the study selection process via a flow diagram. We will append a detailed list of the excluded studies, with full-text exclusion reasons, to the final report. Before each screening stage, we will undertake a pilot round of 200 titles and abstracts and 10 full texts, or as many as needed to achieve a mutual understanding of the selection criteria. To create efficiencies, we will screen for studies meeting the eligibility criteria for all KQs simultaneously (the searches for all KQs will ultimately be combined into one database).

When inadequate detail is reported in a study to confirm or refute its eligibility, we will contact the corresponding author by e-mail to request the additional information required. We will contact authors twice, 2 weeks apart, before ceasing contact if we do not receive a reply.

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