LVH was defined as LVM > 115 g/m2 or > 48 g/m2.7 for men when indexed to BSA or to height, respectively, and as LVM > 95 g/m2 or > 44 g/m2.7 for women when indexed to BSA or to height, respectively. Four LV geometric patterns were defined as follows [40]: normal geometry (normal LVM and RWT ≤ 0.42), concentric remodeling (normal LVM and RWT > 0.42), eccentric hypertrophy (LVH and RWT ≤ 0.42), and concentric hypertrophy (LVH and RWT > 0.42).

Three patterns of diastolic dysfunction (DD) were defined according to the E/A ratio, as follows [41, 42]: abnormal relaxation (grade I DD: E/A ratio < 1 and prolonged deceleration time), pseudonormal relaxation (grade II: E/A ratio > 1 and intermediate deceleration time), and restrictive patterns (reversible and irreversible, grades III and IV, respectively; E/A ratio > 2 and shortened deceleration time).

Normal left ventricular filling pressure (LVFP) was defined by an E/e’ ratio < 8 [43]. Elevated LVFP was defined by an E/e’ lateral > 12 [43]

The dilation of the left atrium (LA) was defined as an LA body surface area > 20 cm2 [44].

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