Diabetes mellitus was defined as a fasting blood glucose level ≥ 10 mmol/L and HbA1c > 7% [35].

Hyperinsulinemia was defined as fasting insulinemia > 90 mmol/L.

IR was defined as HOMA-IR ≥ 2.5 [36].

Dyslipidemia was defined as an HDL-c level of < 1.03 mmol/L for men and < 1.04 mmol/L for women, an LDL-c level ≥ 3.38 mmol/L, a TC level ≥ 5.17 mmol/L, or a triglyceride level ≥ 1.69 mmol/L [37].

The atherogenicity index (AI) was calculated as the TC-to-HDL-c ratio. The AI was considered high when this ratio was greater than 5 [38].

Hyperuricemia was defined as a fasting uric acid level > 420 mmol/L [39].

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