Sedentary was defined as sitting for more than 7 h a day [30]. Cigarette smoking was defined as regular smoking for at least 30 days preceding the interview date, regardless of the number of cigarettes smoked [31].

Excessive alcohol consumption was defined as drinking more than 2 glasses of beer or its equivalent every day for at least a year [32].

Overweight was defined as a BMI between 25 and 29.9 kg/m2 of BSA [33].

Obesity was defined as a BMI equal to or greater than 30 kg/m2 of BSA [33]. Abdominal obesity was defined as a WC greater than 102 cm for men and greater than 88 cm for women [33].

Poor control of arterial HTN was defined as an average systolic BP greater than 130 mmHg or an average diastolic BP greater than 80 mmHg, as assessed by 24-h ABPM [34].

Diabetes mellitus was defined as a fasting blood glucose level ≥ 10 mmol/L and HbA1c > 7% [35].

Hyperinsulinemia was defined as fasting insulinemia > 90 mmol/L.

IR was defined as HOMA-IR ≥ 2.5 [36].

Dyslipidemia was defined as an HDL-c level of < 1.03 mmol/L for men and < 1.04 mmol/L for women, an LDL-c level ≥ 3.38 mmol/L, a TC level ≥ 5.17 mmol/L, or a triglyceride level ≥ 1.69 mmol/L [37].

The atherogenicity index (AI) was calculated as the TC-to-HDL-c ratio. The AI was considered high when this ratio was greater than 5 [38].

Hyperuricemia was defined as a fasting uric acid level > 420 mmol/L [39].

LVH was defined as LVM > 115 g/m2 or > 48 g/m2.7 for men when indexed to BSA or to height, respectively, and as LVM > 95 g/m2 or > 44 g/m2.7 for women when indexed to BSA or to height, respectively. Four LV geometric patterns were defined as follows [40]: normal geometry (normal LVM and RWT ≤ 0.42), concentric remodeling (normal LVM and RWT > 0.42), eccentric hypertrophy (LVH and RWT ≤ 0.42), and concentric hypertrophy (LVH and RWT > 0.42).

Three patterns of diastolic dysfunction (DD) were defined according to the E/A ratio, as follows [41, 42]: abnormal relaxation (grade I DD: E/A ratio < 1 and prolonged deceleration time), pseudonormal relaxation (grade II: E/A ratio > 1 and intermediate deceleration time), and restrictive patterns (reversible and irreversible, grades III and IV, respectively; E/A ratio > 2 and shortened deceleration time).

Normal left ventricular filling pressure (LVFP) was defined by an E/e’ ratio < 8 [43]. Elevated LVFP was defined by an E/e’ lateral > 12 [43]

The dilation of the left atrium (LA) was defined as an LA body surface area > 20 cm2 [44].

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