Convergent and discriminant validity of the instrument were evaluated through Fornell and Larcker’s approach using the average variance extracted (AVE), maximum shared squared variance (MSV), and CR. The convergent validity is confirmed if the items of the intended scale show strong correlations.

In addition, discriminant validity is supported when the extracted factors are distinct from each other [32]. To confirm convergent validity, AVE should be greater than 0.5 and the CR should be greater than the AVE. However, discriminant validity is maintained if AVE is greater than the MSV [33].

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