Publication pattern and time trends analyses were conducted on the basis of author institutional affiliation as per the following categories: (1) “Inside”—authors affiliated to institutions located in MENA and/or neighboring countries, (2) “Outside”—authors affiliated to institutions located in NMNN countries, and (3) “North-South collaboration”—authors affiliated to institutions located in MENA and/or neighboring countries collaborating with authors from NMNN countries. The time trend for yearly number of publications was assessed using linear regression in unstratified and stratified data. We assessed significance of the association using the F test and the goodness-of-fit of the models using adjusted R-squared statistics. We also conducted analyses by yearly number of citations and JIF. Fisher’s exact test was utilized to assess the differences between the number of publications between SRs and journals characteristics. Authors’ affiliation in SRs was used as a proxy for research capacity [4]. Association statistical significance threshold was at 0.01. We used R-3.3.1 software and SPSS V.25 for our analyses.

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