Qualitative and quantitative methods were used for the face validity evaluation. In the qualitative evaluation of face validity, face-to-face interviews were conducted with 12 nursing students. They discussed the comprehensiveness, appropriateness, clarity, and necessity of each item. The items were then revised based on the comments.

In the quantitative evaluation of the face validity, 12 students at different educational levels were asked to rate the importance of each item on a 5-point scale from 1 (not important) to 5 (very important). The impact score of each item was calculated by multiplying its importance score by the number of students who had rated it 4 or 5, and items with impact scores of lower than 1.5 were removed [27].

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