Pathway analyses were predominantly performed on the 50 hallmark pathways described in the molecular signature database. To assign pathway activity estimates to individual cells, we applied GSVA 71 using standard settings, as implemented in the GSVA package (Version 1.30.0). Differential activated pathways between cells from tumor and nontumor tissues were tested using the generalized linear model from the Limma package (Version 3.38.3), and P‐values were Benjamini‐Hochberg‐corrected. Pathways with adjusted P‐value < .05 were considered to be significantly differentially activated. Tumor features, cell cycle, EMT, invasion, and metastasis, were quantified using genes involved in these pathways by GSVA (Table S5).

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