Ethical considerations

This research was reviewed and approved by the Makerere University School of Medicine Research and Ethics Committee (SOMREC) and Mulago Hospital Research and Ethics Committee. The Institutional Review Board (IRB) of Johns Hopkins University School of Public Health relied on SOMREC as the IRB of record. Permission to conduct the study was also obtained from the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Makerere University. While participation in this research was voluntary and respondents provided written informed consent, all prospective participants were given assurance that even if they declined to participate, their decision would not affect the due care that they were entitled to. Since the study posed potential risk of psychological distress if individuals were reminded of unpleasant past experiences during their prior hospitalization with acute illness, the information shared about unpleasant experiences was received in an empathetic manner. Participants who seemed emotionally affected by recall of unpleasant experiences during pregnancy or childbirth were given further counseling.

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