Data analysis was conducted on the English translations after they were checked for accuracy against the Arabic recordings (AA, HO, RH). Thematic analysis [36] began with members of the research team immersing themselves in the data by reading and re-reading transcripts whilst annotating with words or phrases. This was followed by in-person and remote group analysis sessions to discuss reoccurring patterns in the data and unusual views or events. These sessions were also used to achieve consensus regarding discrepant views on the emerging code frame (LJB, AA, AS, ASA, HO, RH, IJ, MC). Coding frames were developed for interviews with women and professionals and refined as additional interviews were annotated. Initial coding was mainly descriptive, drawing on topics in the interview guides which helped us to familiarise ourselves with the data and identify key challenges. In the next stage, ENPT constructs were used as sensitising devices to further interrogate the data about implementation processes, which helped to move the analysis beyond our initial descriptions of the narratives as merely reflecting a set of mutually exclusive barriers and facilitators. ENPT provided a conceptual framework within which to interpret and re-contexualise individual accounts. Whilst the initial stages of analysis used deductive and inductive approaches, the theories about structure and relations embedded within ENPT’s conceptual framework enabled abduction [37] and explanations for causal mechanisms which generated the events. ENPT helped us to think about implementation processes as being shaped by the ways that different actors worked together. We explored participants’ accounts to identify what aspects of context interacted with HERA and how they manifested, how participants made sense of them, how it impacted the way participants engaged with each other within complex social systems and how this influenced the outcomes for HERA. These were developed into a set of themes and coded extracts were reviewed to ensure each theme was coherent (LJB & MC). Nvivo 11 was used to organise and code data.

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