For this meta-analysis, the following inclusion criteria were applied:

Full text cross-sectional, cohort, randomized controlled trial study design

Studies published after the year 2000 (to minimize the time lag bias)

Peer-reviewed and published in the English language

Reported the proportion of SSI and AOR (adjusted odds ratio)

Studies conducted in Africa

The following exclusion criteria were used in screening articles:

Studies conducted among HIV positive patients as immunocompromised individuals are susceptible to infection

Studies that repeated findings from the already included studies

Studies conducted among obese women as those mothers are high risk for SSI

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