Descriptive statistics and reliability and validity analyses were conducted using Stata 15. In order to achieve a psychometrically sound measure that holds under validation, exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was used as a first step over sample 1, whereas confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) were applied later in an independent sample (i.e., sample 2). The first goal was to reduce the set of 24 items to those that best exemplified the proposed dimensions without loading too high on one or more of the other dimensions. EFA can be used to determine whether the hypothesized factor structure is actually reflected in the collected data, and allows reducing the number of items to keep those with the strongest indications of conforming to the proposed underlying structure [37]. In contrast to the EFA, CFA provides a more restrictive test of the hypothesized factor structure by permitting imposed restrictions on relationships between observed variables and factors [38].

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