Echocardiography was performed following LPS stimulation for 6 hours, 12 hours, and 24 hours. In our previous study, 26 mice were anesthetized (2% isoflurane) and analyzed with a 10‐MHz linear array ultrasound transducer equipped with a 30‐MHz probe (MS550D) (Visual Sonics, Toronto, Canada). Echocardiographic parameters were measured under the long‐axis M‐mode when the heart rate was about 450 bpm, including LV internal diameter at end‐systole (LVIDs), LV end‐diastolic internal diameter (LVIDd), and interventricular septum thickness (IVSs). The fractional shortening (FS) was evaluated using the formula: LVFS = (LVIDd‐LVIDs) × 100/LVIDd. The LV ejection fraction (LVEF) was assessed using the Teichholtz formula: LVEF = ([100‐Y] × 0.15) +Y; Y = (LVIDd2‐LVIDs2) × 100/LVIDd2.

Pressure‐volume (PV) loop parameters were recorded using the Power Lab PV system as previously described. 26 Briefly, hemodynamic parameters were monitored by Power Lab system (AD Instruments Ltd., Oxford, UK) equipped with a 1.4‐French Millar PV catheter (SPR‐839; Millar Instruments, Houston, TX). Hemodynamic parameters were detected and included the PV curve, end‐systole volume (ESV), and end‐diastolic volume (EDV).

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