All data analyses were conducted using SPSS 21.0 software (IBM Corp. Armonk, NY, USA). The measurement data conforming to the normal distribution were expressed as mean ± standard deviation. The unpaired t-test was performed for comparisons between two groups, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for comparisons among multiple groups and the Tukey’s post hoc test was used for pairwise comparisons after one-way ANOVA. P value < 0.05 was indicative of statistically significant difference.

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