Continuous variables were expressed as median (interquartile range, IQR) and compared using the nonparametric Mann-Whitney U test or the Kruskal-Wallis test or the Wilcoxon matched-pairs for matched samples as appropriate. Dunn’s correction tests were used if multiple comparisons were requested. Qualitative data were compared using chi-square test or Fisher exact test when required. Correlations between two continuous variables were investigated using the Pearson’s rank test. Tests were two-sided with significance set at α less than 0·05. All data were analyzed with GraphPad Prism 8.4 (GraphPad Software, La Jolla, CA).

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