Our MC ray tracing platform has been used to accurately predict the efficiency and light propagation through LSCs in our previous publications28. Light propagation is modelled on a photon-by-photon basis, with potential reflection or transmission events at interfaces or fluorescence absorption/emission events throughout the medium. The probabilities of reflection or transmission are calculated according to Fresnel’s laws. The distance to each absorption event is given by an inverse sampling method where the distance is based on a random number generator and Beer–Lambert law. Extinction coefficients for each luminophore are calculated based on measurements from a UV–Vis photospectrometer (Shimadzu UV-1800). The emission spectra of the luminophores are obtained from measurements using TCSPC spectroscopy (LifeSpec-ps, Edinburgh Instruments). The probability of re-emission, which is the quantum yield, is calculated based on LSC efficiency measurements and normalised to take into account device dimensions following the methods described in our previous publication25. The number of photons simulated per device ranges between 0.1 and 10 million according to the required resolution. In the case of low efficiency LSCs, a smaller proportion of photons reaches the edges, so a higher number of photons needs to be simulated to achieve convergence with equivalent degrees of accuracy.

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