Data for neighborhood-level poverty, the primary predictor, was acquired from the American Community Survey (ACS) 2014–2018 for 214 New York City (NYC) residential ZIP codes and assigned to patients’ reported ZIP code at date of COVID-19 diagnosis. Neighborhood-level poverty was chosen as our primary indicator of SES, which is in accordance with recommendations from the NYC Health Department (NYC DOHMH), who have validated the use of ZIP code level census data as a measure of area-based SES [14]. Following NYC DOHMH guidelines, neighborhood-level poverty was defined as the percent of residents in each ZIP code whose household income was below the federal poverty threshold (FPT) [14]. The low poverty group consisted of areas in which 0% to < 20% of residents lived below the FPT and the high poverty group consisted of areas in which > 20% residents lived below the FPT. ZIP code level income indicators, such as percent living below the FTP, have been independently validated across several studies as an appropriate method of calculating area-based SES [1517]. Furthermore, ZIP code level income indicators have been shown to be as effective as other commonly used measures of SES, such as highest self-reported education level, in assessing the impact of SES disparities on clinical outcomes [16].

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