The medical records of all patients were retrospectively reviewed and relevant clinical data extracted and securely stored using Research Electronic Data Capture software (REDCap, Vanderbilt University). The extracted data included the following: demographic characteristics (age, sex, patient-reported race, ZIP code), medical comorbidities, patient-reported smoking status and body mass index (BMI) with cut-offs used for normal weight (< 25 kg/m2), overweight (25–30 kg/m2) and obese (> 30 kg/m2). Patient-reported race was categorized in the following groups: non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black or “other race” for patients who identified as Asian, Hispanic, American Indian or Alaska Native, Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander; patients for whom race information was not available were categorized as “unknown.” Survival time was calculated as the days between a positive result on a RT-PCR SARS-CoV-2 assay of a nasopharyngeal swab specimen and last patient follow-up or date of death. The primary outcomes of interest included hospital admission and all-cause mortality. Data on the primary outcomes of interest was collected up to May 13th, 2020, which provided a minimum follow-up time of six weeks for each patient.

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