The SPARK study is approved by the Western Institutional Review Board (WIRB). All participants who consent to join the SPARK study agree to be contacted to complete additional questionnaires. Participants received an email invitation and up to two reminder emails from March 20, 2020 through April 1, 2020, for the first COVID-19 questionnaire (final participants completed on April 3, 2020), and April 23, 2020 through April 29, 2020 for the follow-up questionnaire (final participants completed on April 30, 2020). Only participants who completed the first questionnaire (N = 9030) were invited to complete the follow-up questionnaire. No incentive was provided for participation, but SPARK developed an infographic and article to share results with participants (Simons Foundation 2020).

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