The genes of interest were obtained by blasting the thale cress protein sequences in NCBI, as well as by querying the Genome Database for Rosaceae (GDR; available at https://www.rosaceae.org/) and the cherry database (available at http://cherry.kazusa.or.jp). Multiple alignments were performed in CLUSTAL-Ω (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/Tools/msa/clustalo/). The primers were designed with Primer3Plus (http://www.bioinformatics.nl/cgi-bin/primer3plus/primer3plus.cgi) and checked with OligoAnalyzer 3.1 (http://eu.idtdna.com/calc/analyzer). All the primers and their relative features were previously described5, or are reported in Table Table6.6. The maximum likelihood phylogenetic tree of XTHs was constructed from full-length protein sequences from sweet cherry and other species, namely poplar, tomato, thale cress, nasturtium67. The sequences were aligned with CLUSTAL-Ω and the tree obtained by using IQ-TREE web server (http://iqtree.cibiv.univie.ac.at/) with the “Auto” parameter to identify the best-fit substitution model101. The tree was rooted with Bacillus licheniformis lichenase (accession no CAA40547).

List of primers used for gene expression analysis. Details relative to the sequences of the target genes, together with primers’ amplification efficiency %, melting temperature, amplicon sizes and accession numbers are provided

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