Total RNA was isolated from cultured cells using the miRNeasy Mini Kit (Qiagen, Germany) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. cDNA was synthesized using SuperScript III (Life Technologies, USA). Real-time PCR was performed using SYBR Green Supermix (Bio-Rad, USA) on a CFX96TM Real-Time PCR System (Bio-Rad, USA). The primers for mouse TNFα were as follows: forward, 5′-CCTGTAGCCCACGTCGTAG-3′; reverse, 5′-GGGAGTAGACAAGGTACAACCC-3′. The primers for mouse GAPDH were as follows: forward, 5′-TGTGTCCGTCGTGGATCTGA-3′; reverse, 5′-TTGCTGTTGAAGTCGCAGGAG-3′.

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