One-hundred-and-fifty-eight Portuguese common bean accessions, previously characterized at the molecular level25, were used in this study (Supplementary Table S1). This collection includes accessions of Andean, Mesoamerican, and admixed origin. Two Mesoamerican CIAT lines (International Centre for Tropical Agriculture, Cali, Colombia), SER16, and Tio Canela-75, were also included as international references. SER16 is an elite line with superior drought tolerance and Tio Canela-75, a drought-susceptible cultivar12,52.

Ten seeds per accession were sown, one seed per pot, in a growth chamber at 26 ± 2 °C during the day and 18 ± 2 °C at night, under a photoperiod of 16 h of light (~295 μmol.m−2 s−1), with a relative humidity of 50% and a CO2 concentration of 370 ppm, approximately. Sowing was done in 8 × 8 × 9-cm plastic pots (0.5 L), filled with Montemor soil/peat/vermiculite [2:1:1 (v/v)], watered to full capacity (100%), and weighted. Three extra pots were filled with the same mixture and put in an oven at 80 °C for 1 week to estimate the average dry weight of the soil mixture. This dry-weight value was used later for the soil water content calculation of each pot.

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