Light intensities were measured using a Lighting PassportTM ALP-01 Handheld Spectrometer (HESON, Shanghai, China). Cucumber seedlings were grown in a greenhouse with “DE-HPS 1000 W” lights. To maintain the light conditions within an appropriate range, the plants were placed at different heights below the fixtures. For example, to generate a high-light condition, the plants were moved closer to the lamps; to generate low-light conditions, the plants were moved farther from the lamps or were covered with film. For Arabidopsis, the plates with disinfected seeds were treated at 4 °C for 72 h and then placed under white light for 10 h to induce uniform germination. Afterward, the plates were transferred to dark or light conditions and then incubated at 22 °C for 3–6 days for hypocotyl measurements. The hypocotyl lengths of the seedlings were measured using a tapeline.

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