We obtained formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded and fresh frozen (−70°C) liver samples from NWPs and humans from São Paulo state, Brazil, that were submitted for YF diagnosis to the Adolfo Lutz Institute during 2017, according to the Brazilian National Surveillance Program of YF by the Ministry of Health of Brazil (4). The Adolfo Lutz Institute is an official laboratory for the diagnosis of YFV in humans and primates. NWP samples came from standardized necropsies performed by local surveillance agents. Epidemiologic (carcass location and date) and biological (genera, sex, age) data were obtained from notification files (Sistema Nacional de Agravos de Notificação) sent with the samples. Cases designated as Cebus spp. were reclassified as Sapajus spp., according to Alfaro et al. (17). Only NWP cases with genera identified and formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded liver tissue were included in this study. For humans, samples from patients with suspected or confirmed YF who died were obtained; only cases with quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) results from fresh liver samples were included. Adverse vaccine effects and transplant cases were excluded. All procedures were approved by the Animal Use and Research Ethical Committees of the Adolfo Lutz Institute (CEUA-IAL no. 11/2016 and CEP-IAL no. 3.121.328–caaee 96138818.0.0000.0059) and the Instituto Chico Mendes de Conservação da Biodiversidade protocol 50551–3.

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