Urine samples were self-collected by participants using a device (Colli PeeTM, Novosanis, https://novosanis.com) designed to collect the first 14 mL of first-void urine immediately into 7 mL of a urine-conservation medium to avoid DNA degradation (14) and to allow subsequent urine volume to exit the device into the toilet. Self-collected urine samples were gathered and stored on ice at the school on the morning of sample taking; on the same day, the samples were transported to the central laboratory and stored at –20°C until shipment to IARC in cold boxes with ice packs. Subsequently, samples were shipped on dry ice to the Centre for the Evaluation of Vaccination, University of Antwerp, Belgium, where DNA extraction was performed as described elsewhere (14). DNA extracts were then shipped back to IARC on dry ice.

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