Samples (1–5 mg) were digested with nitric acid, diluted with ultra-pure water, and loaded into the ICP-MS-MS (triple quad Agilent 8800x ICP-MS-MS) to be run in helium and no-gas mode (79). Integration time was adjusted according to the concentration range for each element. The external calibration method was used from 0.01 ng mL–1 to 2500 ng mL–1 with a mixture of scandium, yttrium, indium, and bismuth as internal standards at 5 ng mL–1. Internal mass index elemental tags were used in the form of phosphorus and sulfur instead of the sample mass. Data were analyzed using Agilent MassHunter software. Quality control samples included NIST toxic elements in frozen human urine standard reference material (SRM 2668) and NIST bovine muscle powder (SRM 8414).

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