Specimens were obtained from tumor banks at the University of Cincinnati and VA Medical Center (Cincinnati, Ohio, USA), Urology Oncology Branch at the National Cancer Institute (Bethesda, Maryland, USA), and University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA). Fresh-frozen and OCT embedded tissues were used. All samples were reviewed by genitourinary pathologists and derived from regions with more than 80% cancer cells. Supplemental Table 1 provides information about the patient cohorts. Supplemental Table 10 describes the use of each specimen in the individual analyses. Supplemental Table 11 lists all used reagents. DNA was isolated using DNAzol (MRC) or QIAamp DNA micro kit (Qiagen). VHL was sequenced as described before (57).

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