Mitochondrial DNA was isolated using Qiagen Blood and Tissue Kit following the manufacturer’s protocol (Qiagen). Primers for mitochondria D-loop (encoded by mitochondrial DNA) and Ikb-β (encoded by nuclear DNA) were utilized to determine relative mitochondrial DNA level, and β-actin was used as an internal control; primers are shown in the format of gene, forward primer (F), reverse primer (R): mtD-loop, (F) ACTATCCCCTTCCCCATTTG, (R) TGTTGGTCATGGGCTGATTA; Ikb-β, (F) GCTGGTGTCTGGGGTACAGT, (R) ATCCTTGGGGAGGCATCTAC; β-actin, (F) TGTTACCAACTGGGACGACA, (R) ACCAGAGGCATACAGGGACA.

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