All animal procedures were performed using protocols approved by the Seoul National University IACUC. Mice were fed standard mouse chow and water ad libitum and housed in temperature- and humidity-controlled facilities with a 12-hour light/12-hour dark cycle. For xenograft experiments, 0.5 × 106 to 1 × 106 cells, suspended in 100 μL of PBS mixed with Matrigel matrix (1:1) per spot, were subcutaneously injected into the right flanks of 6–8-week-old female NOD/SCID mice. For PDX experiments, tumors that had been passaged less than 5 times in mice were minced into 2 mm3 pieces and subcutaneously implanted into 6–8-week-old female NOD/SCID mice. After the tumor volume reached 50–100 mm3, the mice were randomly grouped and treated with either vehicle or test agents. Drugs were dissolved and administered to mice as follows. Pc was dissolved in a mixture of Cremophor EL and ethanol (1:1, v/v) and further diluted in PBS (final 1:1:18, v/v/v). Mice were i.p. treated with Pc (20 mg/kg) once a week. Cs and Pm were dissolved in 0.9% (w/v) NaCl solution and i.p. administered once a week at a dose of 3 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg, respectively. Sildenafil citrate was dissolved in 0.9% (w/v) NaCl solution at a dose of 10 mg/kg and orally treated 5 times in a week. Tumor growth was determined by measuring the short and long diameters of the tumors with a caliper in a blinded fashion, and body weight was measured twice weekly to monitor toxicity. Tumor volume was calculated using the following formula: tumor volume (mm3) = (short diameter)2 × (long diameter) × 0.5.

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