Data are expressed as the mean of at least 3 biological replicates ± SD unless otherwise indicated, or are representative of 3 independent experiments. For most data, linear mixed models were used for log-transformed relative values, to account for repeated measurements. The difference between cases and controls was assessed with a likelihood ratio test. Analysis was performed with the nlme package of R software. Where indicated, 1-way ANOVA tests or log-transformations followed by 1-way ANOVA tests were used for statistical analysis. Data were analyzed in PRISM7. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001, ****P < 0.0001.

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