Bacteria were grown in lysogeny broth (LB, Thermo Fisher Scientific); brain heart infusion (BHI, Anaerobe Systems); gut microbiota medium (GMM, Anaerobe Systems); or yeast extract, casitone, and fatty acid (YCFA, Anaerobe Systems) culture media shaken at 37°C. A fecal sample from a healthy 24-year-old male subject (47) was grown in BHI, GMM, or YCFA with or without palmitoylcarnitine, final concentration 1 μM. OD (600) was measured to determine growth rate in the presence or absence of palmitoylcarnitine. Culture media supernatants were taken at 0 and 24 hours for acylcarnitine analysis by mass spectrometry. Control samples consisted of media with or without palmitoylcarnitine.

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