For morphometric evaluations, brightfield images of H&E-stained lung sections were captured as TIFF files and imported into ImageJ (NIH) for analysis. Morphometric measurements including MLI, average distal airspace area, and average distal airspace perimeter were quantified using previously described methods (12, 64). For alveolar attachment counts, alveolar attachments were identified and counted for each small airway and normalized to airway basement membrane length. For Gr-1–positive cell counts, ×40 images of lung sections immunostained with an anti–Gr-1 antibody (R&D Systems, MAB1037) were captured and cell counts per high-power field directly quantified. SMA immunostaining was done on lung sections using an anti–α-SMA antibody (Abcam, ab5694).

For pulmonary vessel density, lung sections were immunostained with anti-vWF antibody (Dako, A0082) and vWF-stained blood vessels less than 50 μm in diameter were quantified per high-power field.

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