Healthy and tumor tissues (0.5 cm) were homogenized using gentleMACS (Miltenyi Biotec), and RNA was isolated using the Maxwell RSC simplyRNA Tissue Kit (Promega) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. RNA concentration was measured using absorbance at 260 and 280 nm. cDNA was synthesized using the high-capacity cDNA Reverse Transcription Kit (Thermo Fisher Scientific) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. qPCR was performed using FAST qPCR Master Mix and predesigned TaqMan assays (Thermo Fisher Scientific) on a QuantStudio 6 system using QuantStudio software (Thermo Fisher Scientific). Mouse GAPDH was used as an endogenous control. Relative expression levels were calculated according to the ΔΔCt method, and samples were measured in triplicate.

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