Total RNA was isolated from liver tissues using TRIzol reagent (Invitrogen). After Turbo DNA-free DNase treatment (Ambion), the construction of strand-specific sequencing libraries using Illumina TruSeq RNA sample Prep kit and the sequencing were performed at the NHLBI DNA Sequencing and Genomics Core. The reverse transcription was carried out with SuperScript III First-Strand Synthesis system (Invitrogen) using 1 μg of RNA. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR was performed on a ViiA 7 Real-Time PCR System (Applied Biosystems Inc.) The PCR program was 2 minutes 30 seconds at 95°C for enzyme activation, 40 cycles of 15 seconds at 95°C, and 1 minute at 60°C. Melting curve analysis was performed to confirm the real-time PCR products. For detecting the expressions of human genes in humanized liver samples, human-specific primers were designed and quantitation was normalized to human 16S rRNA levels. For detecting the expressions of mouse genes in regular mice (C57BL/6), 18S rRNA was used as the internal control. For detecting the expression of hLMR1 in human tissues, the Human MTC Panel I (Takara Bio Inc., 636742) was used. The full primer sequences used are provided in Supplemental Figure 5.

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