Total RNA was extracted with the QIAGEN RNeasy Mini Kit, and cDNA was generated with qScript cDNA SuperMix (Quantabio) according to the manufacturers’ instructions. For RT-PCR, the amplification was performed with DreamTaq Hot Start Green PCT Master Mix (Thermo Fisher Scientific) and specific primers. PCR products were fractionated on 10% TBE gel (Life Technologies) and visualized with ethidium bromide. For quantitative RT-PCR, 0.5 μL cDNA was added to 10 μ PCR reactions prepared with TaqMan Universal PCR Master Mix (Thermo Fisher Scientific) and gene-specific TaqMan probes. All quantitative RT-PCR analysis was performed on an Applied Biosystems ViiA 7 Real-Time PCR System. Relative gene expression levels were calculated using the comparative CT method. Primers and TaqMan probes used in this study are listed in Supplemental Table 8.

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