Residual citrated plasma was collected from patients at emergency room/trauma bay presentation in patients admitted through the emergency department and at the point closest to ICU admission in patients transferred from the hospital ward. Plasma was centrifuged within 30 minutes of blood draw, used for clinical testing, and then refrigerated at 4°C. Residual plasma was then collected within 24 hours, placed in aliquots, and frozen at –80°C until biomarker testing was performed. This approach allowed us to obtain plasma from the earliest possible time point in patients’ presentation regardless of availability of research personnel. Plasma concentrations of sICAM-1, vWF, sTM, and E-selectin were then measured using commercially available ELISAs optimized for human plasma (vWF: Diagnostica Stago, 00942; sICAM-1: eBioscience, BMS201INSTCE; sTM, E-selectin: R & D Systems, DTHBD0 and DSLE00, respectively).

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