Peripheral blood samples were collected from hospitalized (n = 46) and nonhospitalized (n = 39) patients at the University of Alabama at Birmingham. Samples were also collected from 25 nonhospitalized samples at a second time point. Convalescent status was defined based on patients being asymptomatic for at least 3 consecutive days and being at least 7 days past initial diagnosis. Patient clinical data for hospitalized patients was collected from the electronic medical record; self-reported clinical data was collected for convalescent samples by questionnaire at the time of sample collection and uploaded to REDCap (57). All data and samples were collected in accordance with the University of Alabama at Birmingham’s IRB. All patients had a confirmed positive test for SARS-CoV-2 unless otherwise stated. A summary of patient demographic and clinical status data is shown in Table 1. PBMCs from patient blood samples were harvested using density gradient centrifugation. Additionally, our cohort of healthy (CoV–) individuals was composed of 20 total samples. Of these, frozen PBMCs (n = 17) from before 2019 were used primarily to ensure the absence of asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infections; additionally, fresh samples were collected from 3 asymptomatic seronegative individuals, and analysis from each of these samples showed no significant differences between fresh and frozen samples within that individual.

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