For analysis of G55 mRNA levels in tumors annotated on the basis of somatic DNA mutations in the TCGA pan-cancer cohort (50), oncogenic mutations were defined by single nucleotide variant or indel falling within a “hotspot” residue as defined by Chang et al. (51). For pan-cancer TCGA cohort analyses, P values are by univariate Cox, stratified by cancer type. For LUAD cohort analyses, P values are by univariate Cox. For computing multiple-gene signature scores, we first normalized each gene to standard deviations from the median across the pan-cancer cohort (using log2-transformed expression values), and then took the average of the 3 normalized values. Unless stated otherwise, the results shown are representative of replicated experiments and are the mean ± SD from triplicate samples or randomly chosen cells within a field. Statistical evaluations were carried out with Prism 6 (GraphPad Software, Inc.). Unpaired 2-tailed Student’s t tests were used to compare the mean values of 2 groups. One-way ANOVA with Dunnett’s test was used for comparing multiple treatments to a control. P values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Plots were generated using software ( Box plots: 5%, 25%, 50%, 75%, 95%. Tumor type abbreviations are described here (

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