Total RNA was extracted using TRIzol Reagent (Life Technologies, Thermo Fisher Scientific), and 1 μg RNA was reverse transcribed with an iScript Select cDNA Synthesis Kit (Bio-Rad). The primer sequences are listed in Supplemental Table 4. Real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) mixtures were prepared with iTaq Universal SYBR Green Supermix (Bio-Rad), and reactions were performed on a CFX connect Real-time System (Bio-Rad). Ct values were normalized to the housekeeping gene Actb.

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