Information on a wide range of potential covariates was collected using a standard self-administered questionnaire. We used data in 2005 on age (years), sex (male/female), BMI (kg/m2), smoking status (never-smokers/former-smokers/current-smokers), smoking intensity (number per day), alcohol drinking (non-users/former-users/occasional-users/current-users), daily alcohol intake (less than 2 glasses/2–3 glasses/4–5 glasses/6 glasses or more), strenuous and moderate exercise (times per week), education level (junior high school or equivalent/completed high school or equivalent/post-high school diploma or certificate/bachelor or higher university degree), average monthly income (≤3,000 Thai baht/3,001–7,000 Thai baht/7,001–10,000 Thai baht/10,001–20,000 Thai baht/20,001–30,000 Thai baht/≥30,000 Thai baht), marital status (single/living with partner or married/divorced or separated/widowed), high fat, sodium and sugar consumption and sugar-sweetened soft drink consumption (never or less than once a month/1–3 times per month/1–2 times per week/3–6 times per week/once a day or more), vegetables and fruit consumption (serves/day), and other self-reported comorbidities (i.e. cancer, chronic bronchitis, asthma, stroke, coronary heart disease).

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