Staff administered questionnaires in Mandarin-Chinese to collect information on variables potentially related to energy use and exposures to air pollution including age, gender, ethnicity, education, occupation, marital status, tobacco smoking, and household income. We drew questions from the INTERMAP study that were re-tested with local residents to ensure that questions were being interpreted as intended (Yan et al., 2019). We also collected comprehensive information on household fuels, energy devices, and ventilation using an image-based questionnaire that included pictures of all stoves and fuels used in the region. Detailed information on the energy questionnaire is provided elsewhere (Carter et al., 2019). Briefly, respondents indicated whether they were currently using a given energy device or fuel and, if so, described the frequency and purpose of use. Energy devices that burned coal, wood, and/or agricultural residues were categorized as ‘solid fuel’ stoves, while stoves powered by gas or electricity were considered ‘clean fuel’ stoves. All devices were classified into one of the following categories: solid fuel cookstoves, clean fuel cookstoves, solid fuel heating stoves, and clean fuel heating stove. Participants were categorized as ‘exclusive clean cooking fuel’ users if they reported using clean fuel regularly and reported no use or rare use (i.e., holidays or when hosting guests) of solid fuel. The remaining participants were classified as users of solid fuel for cooking. Solid fuel stove use was further divided into any indoor use or only outdoor use. Heating fuel included the same categories as cooking with the addition of a fourth category to indicate no heating or cooling-specific device in the home. For cooking fuel, outdoor-only solid fuel use and indoor solid fuel use were combined into a single category due to a small sample size.

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