We obtained real-time temperature and dew point temperature data from the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/isd/products). Relative humidity was estimated based on the temperature and dew point temperature the using the weathermetrics package in R (Anderson and Peng, 2012). We used inverse distance weighting (power function of 1) from all meteorological stations within 100 km of each study village to estimate the daily temperature and relative humidity. To evaluate the accuracy to these data, we compared them to the outdoor temperatures measured during the participants clinic visits using local meteorological stations (Yan et al., 2019) (n = 99 days; Pearson r = 0.97; RMSE = 4.5) (Supplementary Fig. S4). We used the estimated temperatures for statistical analysis because they were highly correlated with measured temperature and also allowed us to time-match meteorological data with exposure measurements.

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